This magnificent, separately published map of Carinthia in Austria, with parts of Slovenia in the south, was made by an Carinthian Jesuist Johann Baptist Zauchenberg and dedicated to his teacher Karl Adrian.
The map shows the borders of Carinthia, with detailed geography and road connections. Zauchenberg based the map on the 17th century map by Isreal Holztwurm, but modernised the details and details on the infrastructure.
The upper view of Klagenfurt is based on a copper engraving from Valvasor’s Topographia archiducatus Carinthiae from 1668.
The image in the lower left cortner showcases the ancient ritual of inauguration of a Duke of Carantania. The Duchy of Carantania was a Slavic principality that emerged in the second half of the 7th century. In 889 it became March of Carinthia, a frontier district of the Carolingian Empire.
The principality of Carantania is notable for the ancient inauguration of Carantanian dukes in the church in Maria Saal and on a on the Prince's Stone, an ancient Roman column capital, on the place of the ruined Roman city Virunum. The ceremony was held in Slovenian and German language. It was last performed in 1414, when the Habsburg Ernest the Iron was enthroned as Duke of Carinthia.
The ceremony was first described by the chronicler John of Viktring in 1286 and is also mentioned in Jean Bodin's book Six livres de la République in 1576.
The map was printed in Augsburg on the costs of the Carinthian government.
In the followeing years its design served as a draft for maps of Carinthia by the following map makers:
- JOHANN BAPTIST HOMANN (1664-1724), ca. 1724,
- MATTHÄUS SEUTTER (1678-1757), um 1728-1731,
- TOBIAS CONRAD LOTTER (1717-1777), 1772,
- GEORGES-LOUIS LE ROUGE (ca 1707-ca 1790), between1748 and 1756,
- FRANZ JOHANN JOSEPH VON REILLY (1766-1820), 1791,
- JAN BARENT ELWE (1774-1815), 1791, etc.
Two States of the Map and Original Copper Plates Reused
There are two, almost identical states of this map. The first bears a signature Johan. Spiegel Sculpsit. In the second state the signature was erased and replaced with Gottfrid Pfautz Svulpsit. A. V. The original plates, which survived until today and are kept by the Carinthian History Society, also beat the latter sign, proving that Johannes Spiegel made fists imprints and Johann Gottfried Pfautz (1687–1760) took over the plates some years later.
The map was reprinted at different times from original plates well into the 19th century. This copy was probably made around 1800 and mas originally mounted on linen.
Due to the large size of the map the survival rate of this title is extremely low. We could only find a few copies in libraries woorldwide and no copies in the auction records for the past generation.
References: Paul Josef von Riegger, Caroli Andrian e S. J. Epochae Habspurgo-Austriacae Mariae Theresiae, 1762, p. IX; Archiv der Grafen von Bissingen und Nippenburg Hohenstein, 2005, p. 645; Descriptio Austriae,Plate 47; Johannes Dörflinger, Österreichische Karten des 18. Jahrhunderts, p. 40; Gustav FORSTNER, Die Grenzen des Herzogtums Kärnten in Alten Landkarten.